For many years, firstly as a lecturer and more recently as an academic developer, I have been interested in the potential of action research as applied to teaching and learning in a university context. This interest was sustained through establishing an active group of like-minded colleagues at Liverpool Hope University who met regularly to discuss and research pedagogical issues. This, in turn, has led to three international Pedagogical Research in Higher Education (PRHE 06, 08, 10) conferences. An account of this initiative is described in Norton & Owens 2013 and Norton, 2014).
Each conference also produced a special issue of the Hope University in-house journal PRIME (Pedagogical Research In Maximising Education) which itself was designed to promote and disseminate learning and teaching action research studies.
Pedagogical action research can most simply be defined as systematically investigating your own teaching and assessment practice and/or your students’ learning (often the two cannot be separated). Pedagogical action research is derived from an ‘issue’ that has arisen in your pedagogical practice as an ‘academic’ (a term I use inclusively to represent all who are involved in student learning, such as teachers, learning support professionals, librarians, and staff developers to name but a few). Most importantly, as a form of action research, this kind of research has the dual aim of contributing to theoretical knowledge and to improving practice.
The work on action research culminated in a book, the first edition of which I wrote in 2009 to help others who were interested in carrying out this type of research but who might not necessarily have the social science/education research background to know where to begin. With this thought in mind I wrote a practical ‘walk with me’ type of book , the purpose of which would enable the reader to design, carry out, analyse and disseminate a pedagogical action research study which would be of publishable quality.
I am currently writing a second edition which I hope will be published late in 2018 (see below).
Here are some excerpts from my first edition preface to give a flavour of the book’s contents:
‘I hope to have provided a guide that is encouraging but at the same time does not attempt to gloss over the very real issues that doing pedagogical research in a university context can create. Throughout the book, I have adopted an informal personal style, drawing directly on my own experience in carrying out and promoting this type of action research. In this way, my purpose has been to illustrate how feasible action research is, even when you are hard pressed by other academic demands, and also to show you some of the pitfalls I have encountered along the way, so that you will, at the very least, be forewarned’.
‘The book is organized into two sections: the theoretical and the practical, either of which can be read independently, so for those of you who are keen to get on with the practical aspects of doing an action research study, a good starting point is Chapter 5. If you already have a fair amount of experience with action research but would like some theoretical underpinnings you may prefer to start with Chapter 1. In this first section… I make a case for pedagogical action research in higher education where there is still an uncomfortable divide between research and teaching, and where the former is more highly rewarded. I have spent some time on this as I have found that in the highly competitive academic research world, you need to be able to justify and defend any research activity which might not be recognized as ‘mainstream’.
Throughout the book I have used the device of hypothetical case studies or vignettes to bring to life some of the dilemmas and decisions we have to make in carrying out our action research projects. This has also been a useful device to include illustrations other than those from my own experience as an academic psychologist, but I hope in reading them, you will have caught some of my enthusiasm and commitment to this type of research. I wish you the very best of luck in your own pedagogical action research journeys’.
Second edition forthcoming
The second edition of this book will be published late in 2018.
This second edition will have the same aim and format but has been completely revised and updated to fit the current HE context. There are four new chapters:
- What does doing pedagogical action research mean in the current HE context?
- Why is reflective practice important?
- Why is the professionalisation of university teaching important?
- How can action research contribute to career development?
Since the publication of the first edition, much has changed in the higher education sector with neoliberalism, league tables, the recently introduced Teaching Excellence Framework in the UK and the drivers for employability, so this new university context has been updated and internationalised throughout the book. As part of this movement, the interest in Action Research continues to grow as an element of professional practice, as a process in reflective practice and as a form of initial and continuing professional development. .
This is a revised and augmented second edition addressing a wider audience than the first edition. One of the new chapters has specifically been written to consider how pedagogical action research can contribute to career development. My aim has remained the same- writing a practical guide ( a vade mecum) for those who are keen to research their own teaching and assessment practice or some aspect of their students’ learning, but do not know where or how to start. I also hope it will have something to offer to the reader who has carried out some action research and would like to extend their knowledge further.
HEA publication on action research
The Higher Education Academy have published a practice guide to action research in higher education which I co-authored with Dr Lydia Arnold, Harper Adams University:
Arnold, L & Norton,L (2018) Action Research: Practice Guide
This is accompanied by a selection of case studies illustrating action research in the sector Arnold, L. & Norton, L (2018) HEA Action Research: Sector Case studies
My rationale for pedagogical action research (PedAR)
While mindful of the University context in which subject research is often privileged, I remain an advocate of the benefits of carrying out pedagogical action research as a practical and pragmatic approach to at least four of the demands that are put onto academics’ shoulders:
The need to be an excellent university teacher
The pressures have increased with the effect of the National Student Survey, league tables, and most recently the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework in England.
The need to be a reflective practitioner
Carrying out research on our own teaching and/or on our students’ learning is interwoven with being an excellent teacher and a reflective practitioner. Looking to improve our students’ learning experience is the primary driver of pedagogical action research.
The need to engage with continuing professional development
Pedagogical action research is an empowering form of CPD, particularly in engaging with the scholarship of learning and teaching (SOTL).
The need to be research active.
Pedagogical action research can be equally as rigorous as ‘subject’ research but in order to be considered as such, it must be disseminated and open to public scrutiny through peer reviewed conference papers and journal articles.
Norton, L (2018) Keynote paper. Action research in higher education: Experiences and reflections on integrating the personal and political through professional practice. CARN Bulletin 20, 5-10 (Autumn 2016, published Spring 2018) ISBN 978-1-910029-37-4
Norton, L (2016) Developing criticality in learning and teaching through pedagogical action research. Chapter 14,pp.154-163 in John, P & Fanghanel, J. (eds) (2015) Dimensions of marketization in Higher Education. London: Routledge.
Norton, L. (2014) The case for pedagogical action research in psychology learning and teaching, Psychology Teaching Review, 20, 2, 3-11.
Norton, L (2014) Pedagogical Action Research: research and teaching intertwined. Chapter 4, pp23-27. In McEwen, L Mason O’Connor, K. (eds) Developing pedagogic research in higher education SEDA special 37 ISBN: 978-1-902435-59-6 London: SEDA
Norton, L & Owens, T (2013) Pedagogical Action Research: Enhancing Learning and Teaching through a Community of Practice. In Diane J. Salter (Ed) Cases on Quality Teaching Practices in Higher Education. Hershey PA: IGI Global. Chapter 18, pp.291-303.
Some of my more recent PowerPoint presentations on pedagogical action research are available on this website for colleagues to download.
I also offer workshops and interactive presentations which can be adapted to suit specific requirements. For more details please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org